The Four Temperament’s

The Greek physician Hippocrates (c. 460 – c. 370 BC) incorporated the four temperaments into his medical theories as part of the ancient medical concept of humourism, that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviors. Later discoveries in biochemistry have led modern medicine science to reject the theory of the four temperaments, although some personality type systems of varying scientific acceptance continue to use four or more categories of a similar nature.

In the nature of the soul, Philosophers and metaphysicians call it Spiritus, Anima, Animal Spirits, or what you will, its essence has baffled even the best medical minds as they tried to make out its mysteries.

A key precept in Greek Medicine and other holistic healing systems is this: Illness or disease starts the moment the patient feels or senses that something is out of order, amiss, or not quite right.

When it comes to mind, consciousness, and the subtle side of man, Greek Medicine differentiates between disorders that are organic in origin, having a physical or structural basis, and that which is:

  • ephemeral – originating in or pertaining to the vital or energetic functions;
  • hysterical – originating from mental or emotional agitation or disorder.

To relates these concepts to western medicine, the yin and yang/masculine and feminine are connected via the nervous system;

  • The Yang relates to the Sympathetic nerves.
  • The Yin relates to the Parasympathetic.

The basic correspondences of the sense organs to the Four Elements and their temperaments in Greek Medicine are as follows: Wet, Dry, Hot and Cold

  •       WATER – COLD and WET – EYES – Visual Faculty
  •       EARTH – COLD and DRY – EARS – Auditory Faculty
  •       AIR – HOT and WET – TONGUE – Gustatory Faculty
  •       FIRE – HOT and DRY – NOSE – Olfactory Faculty
  •       TOUCH – SKIN – Tactile Faculty – an equal blend of all elements and temperaments.

Water and Air, are cold and Fire and Earth are Hot.

Plato regarded the four elements as the four essences, Earth – Carbon, Air – oxygen, Fire – Hydrogen and Water to Nitrogen.

These four elements make up 99% of the human body;

  • Hydrogen 63%
  • Oxygen 24%
  • Carbon 9%
  • Nitrogen 3%

The remaining 1% is made up of 7 elements to make the remaining atoms;

  • Sodium
  • Magnesium
  • Phosphorus
  • Sulphur
  • Chlorine
  • Potassium
  • Calcium
  • These 7-element’s account for 0.9%

The last 0.1% is found in trace amounts, except fluorine, iodine and selenium.

The human body consists of four base elements also; water, salt, soda, iodine. Water being the biggest velocity.

According to Plato’s philosophy, the soul has three basic parts, or levels of expression:

  • Logos – This is the highest level of soul expression, which Plato called the psyche, or immortal soul. Its attributes are reason, wisdom, and spiritual insight. It finds expression through the Crown and Brow centers.
  • Thymos – This is the middle level of soul expression, or the mortal soul. Its basic attributes are passion, fight and drive. It finds expression through the middle three chakras: the Throat, Heart and Gastric centers.
  • Epithymia – This is the level of desire and instinct, and is the lowest level of soul expression. It is also concerned with basic survival needs and appetites, and finds expression through the two lowest chakras: the Generative and Root centers.

In terms of the soul expression, the three centers are related to the

  • Logos – super consciousness
  • Thymos – consciousness
  • Epithymia – unconscious

(Reference John Osopaus website:

Could this also be a reference to the three minds, or better known as the primal ‘animalistic’ brain, the ‘mammalian’ emotional brain and the neocortex as the rational, logical brain. These three brain regions being the hindbrain, mid brain, and forebrain!

Three (Minds) around One soul!



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